For those who are still not convinced that plant-based (vegan) diets are likely healthier than average Western omnivorous diets: here is an avalanche of more than 100 scientific studies, including recent large-scale prospective cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in peer reviewed top journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the Britisch Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). (For the environmental studies, see here)
Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics 116(12): 1970–1980.
Orlich MJ. e.a. (2013). Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med.173(13):1230-1238.
Dinu M. e.a. (2016). Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447
Le LT. & Sabaté J. (2014). Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts. Nutrients 6(6): 2131–2147.
Clarys P. e.a. (2014). Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet. Nutrients, 6(3):1318-1332.
Springmann, M. e.a. (2016). Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523119113.
Van Dooren C. e.a. (2014). Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns. Food Policy 44:36–46.
Tuso P. e.a. (2013). Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets. Perm J. 17(2): 61–66.
Fraser GE. (1999). Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.
Fraser GE & Shavlik DJ. (2001). Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice? Arch Intern Med. 161(13):1645-52.
Huang T., e.a. (2012). Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Ann Nutr Metab; 60:233–240.
Snowdon DA (1988). Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr 48(suppl):739–48.
Song M. e.a. (2016). Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182.
Fung T. e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Two cohort Studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5): 289–298.
Singh R. e.a. (2003). Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (3).
Cai H. e.a. (2007). A prospective study of dietary patterns and mortality in Chinese women. Epidemiology 18(3):393-401.
Bamia C. e.a. (2007). Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr. 10(6):590-8.
Campbell TC, Junshi C. & Bandoo P (1998). Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China Study. The American Journal of Cardiology, 82(10):18–21.
Sinha R. e.a. (2009). Meat Intake and Mortality. A Prospective Study of Over Half a Million People. Arch Intern Med. 169(6):562-571.
Pan A. e.a. (2012). Red Meat Consumption and Mortality. Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. 172(7):555-563.
Micha R, Michas G, Mozaffarian D. (2012). Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes—an updated review of the evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep 14:515-24.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. (2010). Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 121(21):2271-83.
Larsson SC, Orsini N. (2014) Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 179(3):282-9.
Levine M. e.a. (2014) Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population. Cell Metabolism 19:1–11.
Rohrmann e.a. (2013) Meat consumption and mortality – results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC Med.11:63.
Knutsen SF. (1994). Lifestyle and the use of health services. Am J Clin Nutr. 59(5 Suppl):1171S-1175S.
Key TJ, Davey GK & Appleby PN (1999). Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (2) : 271-275.
Key TJ e.a. (1999). Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):516S-524S.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ (1999). The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr.70(3 Suppl):525S-531S.
Fraser GE. (2009). Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1607S-1612S.
Fung TT e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: two cohort studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5):289-98.
Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
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Grosso G. e.a. (2015). Nut consumption on all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 101(4):783-93.
Li Y. e.a. (2013). Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 229(2):524-30.
Wang F. e.a. (2015). Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 27;4(10):e002408.
Anderson JW. e.a. (1995). Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New England Journal of Medicine 333(5):276-82.
Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C., & Key T.J. (2013). Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition January 30, 2013.
Baer HJ, Glynn RJ, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer M, Rosner B. (2011). Risk factors for mortality in the nurses’ health study: a competing risks analysis. Am J Epidemiol.173(3):319-329.
Hooper L, e.a. (2012). Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. The Cochrane Library (5): CD002137
Lloyd-Williams, F. e.a., (2008). Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agriculture Policy on dietary saturated fats. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 86 (7).
Pettersen BJ, Anousheh R, Fan J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE. (2012) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Public Health Nut. 5(10):1909-16.
Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, (2014). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 174:577–87.
Huang RY, e.a. (2016). Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 31(1):109-16.
Berkow SE, Barnard N. (2006). Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev. 64(4):175-88.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ. (1998). Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre and alcohol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.22(5):454-60.
Esselstyn C & Golubic M (2014). The Nutritional Reversal of Cardiovascular Disease – Fact or Fiction? Three Case Reports. Exp Clin Cardiol 20(7):1901-1908.
Esselstyn C (1999). Updating a 12-year experience with arrest and reversal therapy for coronary heart disease (an overdue requiem for palliative cardiology). Am J Cardiol. 84(3):339-41, A8.
Bouvard V. e.a. (International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group) (2015). Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology 16(16):1599–1600.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Schmidt JA, Travis RC. (2014) Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 100 Suppl 1:378S-85S.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Allen NE, Thorogood M, Mann JI. (2009). Cancer incidence in British vegetarians. Br J Cancer. 101(1):192-7.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Roddam AW, Allen NE. (2009). Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1620S-1626S.
Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G. (2013). Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 22(2):286-94.
World Cancer Research Centre (2012) Red and processed meat: finding the balance for cancer prevention.
Cross AJ e.a. (2007) A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk PLOS Medicine.
Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA. (2010). A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev. 23(2):349-65
Li F, An S, Hou L, Chen P, Lei C, Tan W. (2014). Red and processed meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med.7(8):2100-10.
Santarelli RL, Pierre F & Corpet DE. (2008). Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence. Nutr Cancer. 60(2): 131–144.
Breslow, R.A.; Graubard, B.I.; Sinha, R.; Subar, A.F. (2000). Diet and lung cancer mortality: a 1987 National Health Interview Survey cohort study. Cancer Causes & Control 11 (5) : 419-431.
Barnard RJ, Gonzalez JH, Liva ME, Ngo TH. (2006) Effects of a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise program on breast cancer risk factors in vivo and tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vitro. Nutr Cancer.55(1):28-34.
Taylor EF, e.a. (2007) Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study British Journal of Cancer 96, 1139–1146
Nöthlings U. e.a. (2005). Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97 (19): 1458-1465.
Larsson et al., (2012) Red and processed meat consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: meta-analysis of prospective studies; British Journal of Cancer 106:603–607.
Van der Pols JC. e.a. (2007). Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 86(6):1722-9.
Aune D e.a. (2015). Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 101(1):87-117.
Torfadottir JE e.a. (2012). Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 175(2):144-53.
Qin L., He K. & Xu J. (2009). Milk consumption and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I level: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 60S, 330S–340S.
Orlich MJ e.a. (2015) . Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers. JAMA Intern Med.
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Fraser GE. (1999) Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.
Ornish D. e.a. (2005). Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol. 174(3):1065-9.
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Allen NE e.a. (2013). Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Int J Cancer. 1;132(3):635-44.
Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ (2002) The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 11(11):1441-8.
McCarty MF, Barroso-Aranda J, Contreras F. (2009) The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy. Med Hypotheses. 72(2):125-8.
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Wakabayashia K. and Sugimura T. (1998). Heterocyclic amines formed in the diet: carcinogenicity and its modulation by dietary factors. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 9(11): 604-612.
Bastide, N.M., e.a. (2011), Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 4, 177-84
Lane, H.W.; Carpenter, J.T. Jr. (1987). Breast cancer: incidence, nutritional concerns, and treatment approaches. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 87(6) : 765-769.
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Barnard RJ, Ngo TH, Leung PS, Aronson WJ, Golding LA. (2003). A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro. Prostate, 56(3):201-6.
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