For those who are still not convinced that plant-based (vegan) diets are likely healthier than average Western omnivorous diets: here is an avalanche of more than 100 scientific studies, including recent large-scale prospective cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in peer reviewed top journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the Britisch Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). (For the environmental studies, see here)
Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics 116(12): 1970–1980.
Orlich MJ. e.a. (2013). Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med.173(13):1230-1238.
Dinu M. e.a. (2016). Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447
Le LT. & Sabaté J. (2014). Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts. Nutrients 6(6): 2131–2147.
Clarys P. e.a. (2014). Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet. Nutrients, 6(3):1318-1332.
Clarys P. e.a. (2013). Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Nutr J. 13;12:82.
Aleksandrowicz L. e.a. (2016). The Impacts of Dietary Change on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land Use, Water Use, and Health: A Systematic Review. PLoS One 11(11): e0165797.
Springmann M. e.a. (2016). Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523119113.
Van Dooren C. e.a. (2014). Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns. Food Policy 44:36–46.
Tuso P. e.a. (2013). Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets. Perm J. 17(2): 61–66.
Freeman A. e.a. (2017). Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 69(9):1172-1187.
Fraser GE. (1999). Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.
Fraser GE & Shavlik DJ. (2001). Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice? Arch Intern Med. 161(13):1645-52.
Huang T., e.a. (2012). Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Ann Nutr Metab; 60:233–240.
Snowdon DA (1988). Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr 48(suppl):739–48.
Song M. e.a. (2016). Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182.
Fung T. e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Two cohort Studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5): 289–298.
Singh R. e.a. (2003). Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (3).
Cai H. e.a. (2007). A prospective study of dietary patterns and mortality in Chinese women. Epidemiology 18(3):393-401.
Martínez-González M. e.a. (2014). A provegetarian food pattern and reduction in total mortality in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 100 Suppl 1:320S-8S.
Bamia C. e.a. (2007). Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr. 10(6):590-8.
Campbell TC, Junshi C. & Bandoo P (1998). Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China Study. The American Journal of Cardiology, 82(10):18–21.
Sinha R. e.a. (2009). Meat Intake and Mortality. A Prospective Study of Over Half a Million People. Arch Intern Med. 169(6):562-571.
Pan A. e.a. (2012). Red Meat Consumption and Mortality. Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. 172(7):555-563.
Micha R, Michas G, Mozaffarian D. (2012). Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes—an updated review of the evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep 14:515-24.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. (2010). Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 121(21):2271-83.
Larsson SC, Orsini N. (2014) Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 179(3):282-9.
Levine M. e.a. (2014) Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population. Cell Metabolism 19:1–11.
Rohrmann e.a. (2013) Meat consumption and mortality – results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. BMC Med.11:63.
Knutsen SF. (1994). Lifestyle and the use of health services. Am J Clin Nutr. 59(5 Suppl):1171S-1175S.
Key TJ, Davey GK & Appleby PN (1999). Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (2) : 271-275.
Key TJ e.a. (1999). Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):516S-524S.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ (1999). The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr.70(3 Suppl):525S-531S.
Fraser GE. (2009). Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1607S-1612S.
Fung TT e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: two cohort studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5):289-98.
Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
Hartley L e.a. (2013). Increased consumption of fruit and vegetables for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 6:CD009874.
Grosso G. e.a. (2015). Nut consumption on all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 101(4):783-93.
Li Y. e.a. (2013). Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 229(2):524-30.
Wang F. e.a. (2015). Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 27;4(10):e002408.
Anderson JW. e.a. (1995). Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New England Journal of Medicine 333(5):276-82.
Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C., & Key T.J. (2013). Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition January 30, 2013.
Baer HJ, Glynn RJ, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer M, Rosner B. (2011). Risk factors for mortality in the nurses’ health study: a competing risks analysis. Am J Epidemiol.173(3):319-329.
Hooper L, e.a. (2012). Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. The Cochrane Library (5): CD002137
Lloyd-Williams, F. e.a., (2008). Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agriculture Policy on dietary saturated fats. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 86 (7).
Pettersen BJ, Anousheh R, Fan J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE. (2012) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Public Health Nut. 5(10):1909-16.
Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, (2014). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 174:577–87.
Huang RY, e.a. (2016). Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 31(1):109-16.
Berkow SE, Barnard N. (2006). Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev. 64(4):175-88.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ. (1998). Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre and alcohol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.22(5):454-60.
Esselstyn C & Golubic M (2014). The Nutritional Reversal of Cardiovascular Disease – Fact or Fiction? Three Case Reports. Exp Clin Cardiol 20(7):1901-1908.
Esselstyn C (1999). Updating a 12-year experience with arrest and reversal therapy for coronary heart disease (an overdue requiem for palliative cardiology). Am J Cardiol. 84(3):339-41, A8.
Bouvard V. e.a. (International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group) (2015). Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology 16(16):1599–1600.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Schmidt JA, Travis RC. (2014) Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 100 Suppl 1:378S-85S.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Allen NE, Thorogood M, Mann JI. (2009). Cancer incidence in British vegetarians. Br J Cancer. 101(1):192-7.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Roddam AW, Allen NE. (2009). Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1620S-1626S.
Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G. (2013). Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 22(2):286-94.
World Cancer Research Centre (2012) Red and processed meat: finding the balance for cancer prevention.
Cross AJ e.a. (2007) A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk PLOS Medicine.
Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA. (2010). A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev. 23(2):349-65.
WU J. e.a. (2016). Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Nutrients 8(11). pii: E730.
Li F, An S, Hou L, Chen P, Lei C, Tan W. (2014). Red and processed meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med.7(8):2100-10.
Santarelli RL, Pierre F & Corpet DE. (2008). Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a review of epidemiologic and experimental evidence. Nutr Cancer. 60(2): 131–144.
Breslow, R.A.; Graubard, B.I.; Sinha, R.; Subar, A.F. (2000). Diet and lung cancer mortality: a 1987 National Health Interview Survey cohort study. Cancer Causes & Control 11 (5) : 419-431.
Barnard RJ, Gonzalez JH, Liva ME, Ngo TH. (2006) Effects of a low-fat, high-fiber diet and exercise program on breast cancer risk factors in vivo and tumor cell growth and apoptosis in vitro. Nutr Cancer.55(1):28-34.
Taylor EF, e.a. (2007) Meat consumption and risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study British Journal of Cancer 96, 1139–1146
Nöthlings U. e.a. (2005). Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97 (19): 1458-1465.
Larsson et al., (2012) Red and processed meat consumption and risk of pancreatic cancer: meta-analysis of prospective studies; British Journal of Cancer 106:603–607.
Van der Pols JC. e.a. (2007). Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 86(6):1722-9.
Aune D e.a. (2015). Dairy products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 101(1):87-117.
Qin L-Q. e.a. (2007). Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: Evidence from cohort studies. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 16(3):467 – 476.
Torfadottir JE e.a. (2012). Milk intake in early life and risk of advanced prostate cancer. Am J Epidemiol. 175(2):144-53.
Qin L., He K. & Xu J. (2009). Milk consumption and circulating insulin-like growth factor-I level: a systematic literature review. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 60S, 330S–340S.
Orlich MJ e.a. (2015) . Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers. JAMA Intern Med.
Chan D. e.a. (2011). Red and Processed Meat and Colorectal Cancer Incidence: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. PLOS 6(6):e20456.
Norat T et al. (2002) Meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a dose—response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. International Journal of Cancer, 98:241-256.
Fraser GE. (1999) Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.
Ornish D. e.a. (2005). Intensive lifestyle changes may affect the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol. 174(3):1065-9.
Kolonel LN (2001). Fat, meat and prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev.23(1):72-81.
Rao DN, Ganesh B, Rao RS, Desai PB. (1994) Risk assessment of tobacco, alcohol and diet in oral cancer–a case-control study. Int J Cancer. 58(4):469-73.
Allen NE e.a. (2013). Macronutrient intake and risk of urothelial cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Int J Cancer. 1;132(3):635-44.
Allen NE, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ (2002) The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 11(11):1441-8.
McCarty MF, Barroso-Aranda J, Contreras F. (2009) The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy. Med Hypotheses. 72(2):125-8.
Cavuoto P, Fenech MF. (2012) A review of methionine dependency and the role of methionine restriction in cancer growth control and life-span extension. Cancer Treat Rev.38(6):726-36.
Cross et al. (2005). A prospective study of meat and meat mutagens and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Res, 65: 11779-11784.
Larsson et al. (2005). Meat consumption and risk of cancers of the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum: the Swedish Mammography Cohort, Red. Int J Cancer, 113: 829–34.
Wakabayashia K. and Sugimura T. (1998). Heterocyclic amines formed in the diet: carcinogenicity and its modulation by dietary factors. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 9(11): 604-612.
Bastide, N.M., e.a. (2011), Heme iron from meat and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis and a review of the mechanisms involved. Cancer Prev Res (Phila), 4, 177-84
Lane, H.W.; Carpenter, J.T. Jr. (1987). Breast cancer: incidence, nutritional concerns, and treatment approaches. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 87(6) : 765-769.
Barone, J.; Herbert, J.R.; Reddy, M.M. (1989). Dietary fat and natural-killer-cell activity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50 (4) : 861-867.
Malter, M. Schriever, G.; Eilber, U. (1989). Natural killer cells, vitamins, and other blood components of vegetarian and omnivorous men. Nutrition and Cancer 12 (3) : 271-278.
Barnard RJ, Ngo TH, Leung PS, Aronson WJ, Golding LA. (2003). A low-fat diet and/or strenuous exercise alters the IGF axis in vivo and reduces prostate tumor cell growth in vitro. Prostate, 56(3):201-6.
Steinmetz KA, Potter JD. (1996). Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J Am Diet Assoc. 96(10):1027-39.
Murphy N. e.a. (2012) Dietary fibre intake and risks of cancers of the colon and rectum in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC). PLoS One.7(6):e39361.
Trock BJ, e.a. (2006) Meta-analysis of soy intake and breast cancer risk. J Natl Cancer Inst. 98(7):459-71.
Wu AH, Yu MC, Tseng CC, Pike MC (2008). Epidemiology of soy exposures and breast cancer risk. Br J Cancer. 98(1):9-14.
Shu XO e.a. (2009). Soy food intake and breast cancer survival. JAMA. 302(22):2437-43.
Broxmeyer L. (2005). Thinking the unthinkable: Alzheimer’s, Creutzfeldt-Jakob and Mad Cow disease: the age-related reemergence of virulent, foodborne, bovine tuberculosis or losing your mind for the sake of a shake or burger. Med Hypotheses 64(4):699-705.
Barnard, ND.e.a. (2014). Saturated and trans fats and dementia: a systematic review. Neurobiol Aging. 35 Suppl 2:S65-73.
Giem P, Beeson WL, Fraser GE. (1993). The incidence of dementia and intake of animal products: preliminary findings from the Adventist Health Study. Neuroepidemiology 12(1):28-36.
Mattson, M. (2002). Diet-Brain Connection: Impact on Memory, Mood, Aging and Disease, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Morris MC, Evans EA, Bienias JL (2003). Dietary fats and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch. Neurol. 60:194-200.
Laitinen MH, Ngandu T, Robio S. (2006). Fat intake at midlife and risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease: A population-based study. Dement. Geriatr. Cogn. Disorder 22:99-107.
Baroni L, Bonetto C, Tessan F, Goldin D, Cenci L, Magnanini P, Zuliani G. (2011). Pilot dietary study with normoproteic protein-redistributed plant-food diet and motor performance in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Nutr Neurosci. 14(1):1-9.
Chen H. e.a. (2007). Consumption of dairy products and risk of Parkinson’s disease. Am J Epidemiol. 165(9):998-1006.
Kyrozis A. e.a. (2013). Dietary and lifestyle variables in relation to incidence of Parkinson’s disease in Greece. Eur J Epidemiol. 28(1):67-77.
Chen GC, Lv DB, Pang Z, Liu QF. (2013) Red and processed meat consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Eur J Clin Nutr. 67(1):91-5.
D’Elia L., Barba G, Cappuccio FP, Strazzullo P. (2011). Potassium intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease a meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Am Coll Cardiol. 57(10):1210-9.
Walda IC, Tabak C, Smit HA, Räsänen L, Fidanza F, Menotti A, Nissinen A, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. (2002). Diet and 20-year chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality in middle-aged men from three European countries. Eur J Clin Nutr.56(7):638-43.
Tabak, C. e.a. (1999). Dietary factors and pulmonary function: a cross sectional study in middle aged men from three European countries.Thorax;54:1021-1026
Hirayama F, Lee AH, Binns CW, Zhao Y, Hiramatsu T, Tanikawa Y, Nishimura K, Taniguchi H. (2009). Soy consumption and risk of COPD and respiratory symptoms: a case-control study in Japan. Respir Res. 26;10:56.
Varraso R, Willett WC, Camargo CA Jr. (2010). Prospective study of dietary fiber and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among US women and men. Am J Epidemiol.171(7):776-84.
Jiang R., Paik D.C., Hankinson J.L, & Barr, R.G. (2007). Cured Meat Consumption, Lung Function, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease among United States Adults. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol. 175(8) pp. 798-804.
Keranis E. e.a. (2010). Impact of dietary shift to higher-antioxidant foods in COPD: a randomised trial. Eur Respir J.36(4):774-80.
Gibson A e.a. (2012). Effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on immune function in older people: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr.96(6):1429-36.
Rosenkranz SK, Townsend DK, Steffens SE, Harms CA. (2010) Effects of a high-fat meal on pulmonary function in healthy subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol. 109(3):499-506.
Ghanim H, Abuaysheh S, Sia CL, Korzeniewski K, Chaudhuri A, Fernandez-Real JM, Dandona P. (2009). Increase in plasma endotoxin concentrations and the expression of Toll-like receptors and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 in mononuclear cells after a high-fat, high-carbohydrate meal: implications for insulin resistance. Diabetes Care. 32(12):2281-7.
Beezhold B.L. & Johnston C.S. (2012). Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: A pilot randomized controlled trial. Nutr J. 11: 9.
Lai J.S. e.a. (2014). A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 99(1):181-97.
Nanri A. e.a. (2010). Dietary patterns and depressive symptoms among Japanese men and women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 64(8):832-9.
Beezhold B, Johnston C & Daigle D (2010). Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults. Nutrition Journal, 9:26
Oddy W. e.a. (2009). The association between dietary patterns and mental health in early adolescence. Prev Med. 49(1):39-44.
Adak G. K., Meakins S. M., Yip H., Lopman B. A. & O’Brien S. J. (2005). Disease Risks from Foods, England and Wales, 1996–2000. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 11.
Meat consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Diabetologia 52, 2277–2287.
Effectiveness of plant-based diets in promoting well-being in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review.
Shang, X. e.a. (2016). Dietary protein intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. pii: ajcn140954.
Tonstad, S., Butler T., Yan R. & Fraser G.E. (2009). Type of Vegetarian Diet, Body Weight, and Prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care vol. 32(5):791-796.
Tonstad S, Stewart K, Oda K, Batech M, Herring RP, Fraser GE. (2013). Vegetarian diets and incidence of diabetes in the Adventist Health Study-2. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis.23(4):292-9.
Vang A, Singh PN, Lee JW, Haddad EH, Brinegar CH. (2008). Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies. Ann Nutr Metab.;52(2):96-104.
Barnard ND, Katcher HI, Jenkins DJ, Cohen J, Turner-McGrievy G. (2009). Vegetarian and vegan diets in type 2 diabetes management. Nutr Rev. 67(5):255-63.
Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, Turner-McGrievy G, Gloede L, Green A, Ferdowsian H. (2009). A low-fat vegan diet and a conventional diabetes diet in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a randomized, controlled, 74-wk clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 May;89(5):1588S-1596S.
Kahleova H. & Pelikanova T. (2015). Vegetarian diets in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 34(5):448-58.
Marsh K. & Brand-Miller J. (2011). Vegetarian Diets and Diabetes. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5, 135–143.
Lee Y.M., Kim S.A., Lee I.K. (2016). Effect of a brown rice based vegan diet and conventional diabetic diet on glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-week randomized clinical trial. PLoS One 11: e0155918.
Yokoyama Y. e.a. (2014). Vegetarian diets and glycemic control in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cardiovascular Diagnosis & Therapy 4(5).
Lin J, Hu FB, Curhan GC (2010). Associations of diet with albuminuria and kidney function decline. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 5(5):836-43.
Knight EL, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE, Spiegelman D, Curhan GC. (2003). The impact of protein intake on renal function decline in women with normal renal function or mild renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med. 138(6):460-7.
Wiwanitkit V. (2007). Renal function parameters of Thai vegans compared with non-vegans. Ren Fail. 29(2):219-20.
Moe S.M. e.a. (2011). Vegetarian compared with meat dietary protein source and phosphorus homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 6(2):257-64.
Barsotty G. e.a. (1996) A low-nitrogen low-phosphorus Vegan diet for patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron 74(2):390-4.
Patel KP, Luo FJ, Plummer NS, Hostetter TH, Meyer TW. (2012). The Production of p-Cresol Sulfate and Indoxyl Sulfate in Vegetarians Versus Omnivores. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 7(6):982-8.
Soroka N. e.a. (1998). Comparison of a vegetable-based (soya) and an animal-based low-protein diet in predialysis chronic renal failure patients. Nephron 79(2):173-80.
Bergesio F. e.a. (2005). Cardiovascular risk factors in severe chronic renal failure: the role of dietary treatment. Clin Nephrol. 64(2):103-12.
Marangella, M.; Bianco, O.; Martini, C.; Petrarulo, M.; Vitale, C.; Linari, F. (1989). Effect of animal and vegetable protein intake on oxalate excretion in idiopathic calcium stone disease. British Journal of Urology 63 (4) : 348-351.
Ellis FR, Holesh S, Ellis JW. (1972). Incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians and omnivores. Am J Clin Nutr. 25(6):555-8.
Greenberger NJ e.a. (1977) Effect of vegetable and animal protein diets in chronic hepatic encephalopathy. Am J Dig Dis.22(10):845-55.
Louis E.. D e.a. (2008). Dietary Epidemiology of Essential Tremor: Meat Consumption and Meat Cooking Practices Neuroepidemiology. 30(3): 161–166.
Vergnaud AC e.a. (2010). Meat consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA study. Am J Clin Nutr. 92(2):398-407.
Barnard, ND. e.a. (2015). A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Changes in Body Weight in Clinical Trials of Vegetarian Diets. J Acad Nutr Diet. S2212-2672(14)01763-8.
Turner-McGrievy, GM e.a. (2015). Comparative effectiveness of plant-based diets for weight loss: a randomized controlled trial of five different diets. Nutrition. 31(2):350-8
Thomas M.E. e.a. (2011) Bacterial vaginosis is associated with variation in dietary indices. J Nutr. 141(9):1698-704.
Chelsea M. e.a. (2015). Whole-Foods, Plant-Based Diet Alleviates the Symptoms of Osteoarthritis. Arthritis. 2015: 708152.
Hailu A, Knutsen SF, Fraser GE. (2006). Associations between meat consumption and the prevalence of degenerative arthritis and soft tissue disorders in the adventist health study, California U.S.A. J Nutr Health Aging. 10(1):7-14.
Grant WB (2000). The role of meat in the expression of rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 84(5):589-95.
Kjeldsen-Kragh J (1999). Rheumatoid arthritis treated with vegetarian diets. Am J Clin Nutr.70(3 Suppl):594S-600S.
McDougall J, Bruce B, Spiller G, Westerdahl J, McDougall M. (2002) Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. J Altern Complement Med. 8(1):71-5.
Mitsuro Chibe e.a. (2010) Lifestyle-related disease in Crohn’s disease: Relapse prevention by a semi-vegetarian diet. World J Gastroenterol.16(20): 2484–2495.
Jantchou P. e.a. (2010) Animal protein intake and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: The E3N prospective study. Am J Gastroenterol. 105(10):2195-201.
Hou JK, Abraham B, El-Serag H. (2011). Dietary intake and risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol. 106(4):563-73.
Jowett SL. e.a. (2004) Influence of dietary factors on the clinical course of ulcerative colitis: a prospective cohort study. Gut. 53(10):1479-84.
Kaartinen K, Lammi K, Hypen M, Nenonen M, Hanninen O, Rauma AL. (2000) Vegan diet alleviates fibromyalgia symptoms. Scand J Rheumatol. 29(5):308-13.
Tanaka T. e.a. (2001). Vegetarian diet ameliorates symptoms of atopic dermatitis through reduction of the number of peripheral eosinophils and of PGE2 synthesis by monocytes. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci. 20(6):353-61.
Appleby PN, Allen NE, Key TJ. (2011). Diet, vegetarianism, and cataract risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 93(5):1128-35.
Carter JP, Furman T, Hutcheson HR. (1987). Preeclampsia and reproductive performance in a community of vegans. South Med J. 80(6):692-7.
Nair, P.; Mayberry, J.F. (1994). Vegetarianism, dietary fibre and gastro-intestinal disease. Digestive Diseases 12 (3) : 177-185.
Segasothy, M.; Phillips, P.A. (1999). Vegetarian diet: panacea for modern lifestyle diseases? QJM – Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians 92 (9) : 531-544.
Aldoori WH e.a. (1994). A prospective study of diet and the risk of symptomatic diverticular disease in men. Am J Clin Nutr.60(5):757-64.
Dickerson, J.W.; Davies, G.J.; Crowder, M. (1985). Disease patterns in individuals with different eating patterns. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 105 (6) : 191-194.
Lindahl, O.; Lindwall, L.; Spangberg, A.; Stenram, A.; Ockerman, P.A. (1985). Vegan regimen with reduced medication in the treatment of bronchial asthma. Journal of Asthma 22 (1) : 45-55.
Rahmatulla, M.; Guile, E.E. (1990). Relationship between dental caries and vegetarian and non-vegetarian diets. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 18 (5) : 277-278.
Attaman JA, Toth TL, Furtado J, Campos H, Hauser R, Chavarro JE. (2012) Dietary fat and semen quality among men attending a fertility clinic. Hum Reprod.27(5):1466-74.
Braga DP, Halpern G, Figueira Rde C, Setti AS, Iaconelli A Jr, Borges E Jr. (2012) Food intake and social habits in male patients and its relationship to intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes. Fertil Steril.97(1):53-9.
Ruel G. e.a. (2014). Association between nutrition and the evolution of multimorbidity: the importance of fruits and vegetables and whole grain products. Clin Nutr. 2014 Jun;33(3):513-20.
Michaëlsson K. e.a. (2014). Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies. BMJ 349:g6015.
Lanou AJ, Berkow SE, Barnard ND. (2005) Calcium, dairy products, and bone health in children and young adults: a reevaluation of the evidence. Pediatrics. 115(3):736-43.
Willetts IE, Dalzell M, Puntis JW, Stringer MD. (1999). Cow’s milk enteropathy: surgical pitfalls. J Pediatr Surg.34(10):1486-8.
Ziegler EE. (2011). Consumption of cow’s milk as a cause of iron deficiency in infants and toddlers. Nutr Rev.69 Suppl 1:S37-42.
Bartley J, McGlashan SR. Does milk increase mucus production? Med Hypotheses 74(4):732-4.
Zeilmaker MJ, Hoekstra J, van Eijkeren JC, de Jong N, Hart A, Kennedy M, Owen H, Gunnlaugsdottir H. (2013) Fish consumption during child bearing age: a quantitative risk-benefit analysis on neurodevelopment. Food Chem Toxicol.54:30-4.
Swank RL, Goodwin J. (2003). Review of MS patient survival on a Swank low saturated fat diet. Nutrition.19(2):161-2.
Ghadirian, P., Jain, M, Shatenstein, B, Morrisset, R. (1997) Nutritional factors in the etiology of Multiple Sclerosis: a case control study in Montreal, Canada. International Journal of Epidemiology, 27, 845.
Neggers YH, Nansel TR, Andrews WW, Schwebke JR, Yu KF, Goldenberg RL, Klebanoff MA.(2007) Dietary intake of selected nutrients affects bacterial vaginosis in women. J Nutr.137(9):2128-33.
Morris MC. e.a. (2006). Dietary copper and high saturated and trans fat intakes associated with cognitive decline. Arch Neurol. 63(8):1085-8.
Dit bericht werd geplaatst in Blog
, English texts
en getagged met veganisme
. Maak dit favoriet permalink