For those who are still not convinced that plant-based (vegan) diets are likely healthier than average Western omnivorous diets: here is an avalanche of more than 100 scientific studies, including recent large-scale prospective cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in peer reviewed top journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the Britisch Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). (For the environmental studies, see here)
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Dinu M. e.a. (2016). Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447
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Kim, H., Caulfield, L. E., Garcia‐Larsen, V., Steffen, L. M., Coresh, J., & Rebholz, C. M. (2019). Plant‐Based Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All‐Cause Mortality in a General Population of Middle‐Aged Adults. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8(16), e012865.
Clarys P. e.a. (2014). Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet. Nutrients, 6(3):1318-1332.
Clarys P. e.a. (2013). Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Nutr J. 13;12:82.
Aleksandrowicz L. e.a. (2016). The Impacts of Dietary Change on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land Use, Water Use, and Health: A Systematic Review. PLoS One 11(11): e0165797.
Springmann M. e.a. (2016). Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523119113.
Clark, M. A., Springmann, M., Hill, J., & Tilman, D. (2019). Multiple health and environmental impacts of foods. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
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Sun, Y., Liu, B., Snetselaar, L. G., Wallace, R. B., Shadyab, A. H., Kroenke, C. H., … & Bao, W. (2021). Association of Major Dietary Protein Sources With All‐Cause and Cause‐Specific Mortality: Prospective Cohort Study. Journal of the American Heart Association, 10(5), e015553.
Fraser GE. (1999). Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.
Fraser GE & Shavlik DJ. (2001). Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice? Arch Intern Med. 161(13):1645-52.
Huang T., e.a. (2012). Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Ann Nutr Metab; 60:233–240.
Snowdon DA (1988). Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr 48(suppl):739–48.
Song M. e.a. (2016). Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182.
Satija, A., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health. Trends in cardiovascular medicine, 28(7), 437-441.
Fung T. e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Two cohort Studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5): 289–298.
Singh R. e.a. (2003). Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (3).
Cai H. e.a. (2007). A prospective study of dietary patterns and mortality in Chinese women. Epidemiology 18(3):393-401.
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Sinha R. e.a. (2009). Meat Intake and Mortality. A Prospective Study of Over Half a Million People. Arch Intern Med. 169(6):562-571.
Wang, X., Lin, X., Ouyang, Y. Y., Liu, J., Zhao, G., Pan, A., & Hu, F. B. (2016). Red and processed meat consumption and mortality: Dose–response meta- analysis of prospective cohort studies. Public Health Nutrition, 19(5), 893–905.
Pan A. e.a. (2012). Red Meat Consumption and Mortality. Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. 172(7):555-563.
Papier, K., Fensom, G.K., Knuppel, A. et al. (2021). Meat consumption and risk of 25 common conditions: outcome-wide analyses in 475,000 men and women in the UK Biobank study. BMC Med 19, 53 (2021).
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Levine M. e.a. (2014) Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population. Cell Metabolism 19:1–11.
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Key TJ, Davey GK & Appleby PN (1999). Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (2) : 271-275.
Key TJ e.a. (1999). Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):516S-524S.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ (1999). The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr.70(3 Suppl):525S-531S.
Fraser GE. (2009). Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1607S-1612S.
Fung TT e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: two cohort studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5):289-98.
Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
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Guasch-Ferr´e, M., Satija, A., Blondin, S. A., Janiszewski, M., Emlen, E., O’Connor, L. E., Campbell, W. W., Hu, F. B., Willett, W. C., & Stampfer, M. J. (2019). Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of red meat consumption in comparison with various comparison diets on cardiovascular risk factors. Circulation, 139(15), 1828–1845.
Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C., & Key T.J. (2013). Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition January 30, 2013.
Baer HJ, Glynn RJ, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer M, Rosner B. (2011). Risk factors for mortality in the nurses’ health study: a competing risks analysis. Am J Epidemiol.173(3):319-329.
Hooper L, e.a. (2012). Reduced or modified dietary fat for preventing cardiovascular disease. The Cochrane Library (5): CD002137
Crimarco, A., Springfield, S., Petlura, C., Streaty, T., Cunanan, K., Lee, J., … & Gardner, C. D. (2020). A randomized crossover trial on the effect of plant-based compared with animal-based meat on trimethylamine-N-oxide and cardiovascular disease risk factors in generally healthy adults: Study With Appetizing Plantfood—Meat Eating Alternative Trial (SWAP-MEAT). The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 112(5), 1188-1199.
Lloyd-Williams, F. e.a., (2008). Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agriculture Policy on dietary saturated fats. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 86 (7).
Pettersen BJ, Anousheh R, Fan J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE. (2012) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Public Health Nut. 5(10):1909-16.
Zhang, Y., & Zhang, D. Z. (2018). Red meat, poultry, and egg consumption with the risk of hypertension: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Journal of Human Hypertension, 32(7), 507.
Yokoyama Y, Nishimura K, Barnard ND, (2014). Vegetarian diets and blood pressure: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med 174:577–87.
Huang RY, e.a. (2016). Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 31(1):109-16.
Berkow SE, Barnard N. (2006). Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev. 64(4):175-88.
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Bouvard V. e.a. (International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group) (2015). Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology 16(16):1599–1600.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Schmidt JA, Travis RC. (2014) Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 100 Suppl 1:378S-85S.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Allen NE, Thorogood M, Mann JI. (2009). Cancer incidence in British vegetarians. Br J Cancer. 101(1):192-7.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Roddam AW, Allen NE. (2009). Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1620S-1626S.
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