For those who are still not convinced that plant-based (vegan) diets are likely healthier than average Western omnivorous diets: here is an avalanche of more than 100 scientific studies, including recent large-scale prospective cohort studies, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses published in peer reviewed top journals such as the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), the Britisch Medical Journal (BMJ) and the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). (For the environmental studies, see here)
Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics (2016). Position of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics 116(12): 1970–1980.
Orlich MJ. e.a. (2013). Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and Mortality in Adventist Health Study 2. JAMA Intern Med.173(13):1230-1238.
Dinu M. e.a. (2016). Vegetarian, vegan diets and multiple health outcomes: a systematic review with meta-analysis of observational studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1138447
Le LT. & Sabaté J. (2014). Beyond Meatless, the Health Effects of Vegan Diets: Findings from the Adventist Cohorts. Nutrients 6(6): 2131–2147.
Kim, H., Caulfield, L. E., Garcia‐Larsen, V., Steffen, L. M., Coresh, J., & Rebholz, C. M. (2019). Plant‐Based Diets Are Associated With a Lower Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease, Cardiovascular Disease Mortality, and All‐Cause Mortality in a General Population of Middle‐Aged Adults. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8(16), e012865.
Clarys P. e.a. (2014). Comparison of Nutritional Quality of the Vegan, Vegetarian, Semi-Vegetarian, Pesco-Vegetarian and Omnivorous Diet. Nutrients, 6(3):1318-1332.
Clarys P. e.a. (2013). Dietary pattern analysis: a comparison between matched vegetarian and omnivorous subjects. Nutr J. 13;12:82.
Aleksandrowicz L. e.a. (2016). The Impacts of Dietary Change on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Land Use, Water Use, and Health: A Systematic Review. PLoS One 11(11): e0165797.
Springmann M. e.a. (2016). Analysis and valuation of the health and climate change cobenefits of dietary change. PNAS doi: 10.1073/pnas.1523119113.
Clark, M. A., Springmann, M., Hill, J., & Tilman, D. (2019). Multiple health and environmental impacts of foods. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Van Dooren C. e.a. (2014). Exploring dietary guidelines based on ecological and nutritional values: A comparison of six dietary patterns. Food Policy 44:36–46.
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Fraser GE. (1999). Associations between diet and cancer, ischemic heart disease, and all-cause mortality in non-Hispanic white California Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):532S-538S.
Fraser GE & Shavlik DJ. (2001). Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice? Arch Intern Med. 161(13):1645-52.
Huang T., e.a. (2012). Cardiovascular Disease Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Vegetarians: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review. Ann Nutr Metab; 60:233–240.
Snowdon DA (1988). Animal product consumption and mortality because of all causes combined, coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and cancer in Seventh-day Adventists. Am J Clin Nutr 48(suppl):739–48.
Song M. e.a. (2016). Association of Animal and Plant Protein Intake With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality. JAMA Intern Med. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.4182.
Satija, A., & Hu, F. B. (2018). Plant-based diets and cardiovascular health. Trends in cardiovascular medicine, 28(7), 437-441.
Fung T. e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: Two cohort Studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5): 289–298.
Singh R. e.a. (2003). Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78 (3).
Cai H. e.a. (2007). A prospective study of dietary patterns and mortality in Chinese women. Epidemiology 18(3):393-401.
Martínez-González M. e.a. (2014). A provegetarian food pattern and reduction in total mortality in the Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED) study. Am J Clin Nutr. 100 Suppl 1:320S-8S.
Bamia C. e.a. (2007). Dietary patterns and survival of older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly Study (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). Public Health Nutr. 10(6):590-8.
Campbell TC, Junshi C. & Bandoo P (1998). Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China Study. The American Journal of Cardiology, 82(10):18–21.
Sinha R. e.a. (2009). Meat Intake and Mortality. A Prospective Study of Over Half a Million People. Arch Intern Med. 169(6):562-571.
Pan A. e.a. (2012). Red Meat Consumption and Mortality. Results From 2 Prospective Cohort Studies. Arch Intern Med. 172(7):555-563.
Micha R, Michas G, Mozaffarian D. (2012). Unprocessed red and processed meats and risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes—an updated review of the evidence. Curr Atheroscler Rep 14:515-24.
Micha R, Wallace SK, Mozaffarian D. (2010). Red and processed meat consumption and risk of incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Circulation 121(21):2271-83.
Larsson SC, Orsini N. (2014) Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 179(3):282-9.
Levine M. e.a. (2014) Low Protein Intake Is Associated with a Major Reduction in IGF-1, Cancer, and Overall Mortality in the 65 and Younger but Not Older Population. Cell Metabolism 19:1–11.
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Key TJ, Davey GK & Appleby PN (1999). Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58 (2) : 271-275.
Key TJ e.a. (1999). Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 70(3 Suppl):516S-524S.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ (1999). The Oxford Vegetarian Study: an overview. Am J Clin Nutr.70(3 Suppl):525S-531S.
Fraser GE. (2009). Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases? Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1607S-1612S.
Fung TT e.a. (2010). Low-carbohydrate diets and all-cause and cause-specific mortality: two cohort studies. Ann Intern Med. 153(5):289-98.
Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies
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Li Y. e.a. (2013). Egg consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes: a meta-analysis. Atherosclerosis. 229(2):524-30.
Wang F. e.a. (2015). Effects of Vegetarian Diets on Blood Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Am Heart Assoc. 27;4(10):e002408.
Anderson JW. e.a. (1995). Meta-analysis of the effects of soy protein intake on serum lipids. New England Journal of Medicine 333(5):276-82.
Crowe F.L., Appleby P.N., Travis R.C., & Key T.J. (2013). Risk of hospitalization or death from ischemic heart disease among British vegetarians and nonvegetarians: results from the EPIC-Oxford cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition January 30, 2013.
Baer HJ, Glynn RJ, Hu FB, Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Stampfer M, Rosner B. (2011). Risk factors for mortality in the nurses’ health study: a competing risks analysis. Am J Epidemiol.173(3):319-329.
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Lloyd-Williams, F. e.a., (2008). Estimating the cardiovascular mortality burden attributable to the European Common Agriculture Policy on dietary saturated fats. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 86 (7).
Pettersen BJ, Anousheh R, Fan J, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fraser GE. (2012) Vegetarian diets and blood pressure among white subjects: results from the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) Public Health Nut. 5(10):1909-16.
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Huang RY, e.a. (2016). Vegetarian Diets and Weight Reduction: a Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Gen Intern Med. 31(1):109-16.
Berkow SE, Barnard N. (2006). Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev. 64(4):175-88.
Appleby PN, Thorogood M, Mann JI, Key TJ. (1998). Low body mass index in non-meat eaters: the possible roles of animal fat, dietary fibre and alcohol. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.22(5):454-60.
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Esselstyn C (1999). Updating a 12-year experience with arrest and reversal therapy for coronary heart disease (an overdue requiem for palliative cardiology). Am J Cardiol. 84(3):339-41, A8.
Bouvard V. e.a. (International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group) (2015). Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat. The Lancet Oncology 16(16):1599–1600.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Crowe FL, Bradbury KE, Schmidt JA, Travis RC. (2014) Cancer in British vegetarians: updated analyses of 4998 incident cancers in a cohort of 32,491 meat eaters, 8612 fish eaters, 18,298 vegetarians, and 2246 vegans. Am J Clin Nutr. 100 Suppl 1:378S-85S.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Allen NE, Thorogood M, Mann JI. (2009). Cancer incidence in British vegetarians. Br J Cancer. 101(1):192-7.
Key TJ, Appleby PN, Spencer EA, Travis RC, Roddam AW, Allen NE. (2009). Cancer incidence in vegetarians: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Oxford). Am J Clin Nutr. 89(5):1620S-1626S.
Tantamango-Bartley Y, Jaceldo-Siegl K, Fan J, Fraser G. (2013). Vegetarian diets and the incidence of cancer in a low-risk population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 22(2):286-94.
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Alexander DD, Morimoto LM, Mink PJ, Cushing CA. (2010). A review and meta-analysis of red and processed meat consumption and breast cancer. Nutr Res Rev. 23(2):349-65.
WU J. e.a. (2016). Dietary Protein Sources and Incidence of Breast Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Nutrients 8(11). pii: E730.
Li F, An S, Hou L, Chen P, Lei C, Tan W. (2014). Red and processed meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med.7(8):2100-10.
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Nöthlings U. e.a. (2005). Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study Journal of the National Cancer Institute 97 (19): 1458-1465.
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Van der Pols JC. e.a. (2007). Childhood dairy intake and adult cancer risk: 65-y follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 86(6):1722-9.
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